Peer-reviewed literature to consider

Humans likely evolved to run barefoot

  • Lieberman, Daniel E. 2012. “What We Can Learn About Running from Barefoot Running: An Evolutionary Medical Perspective.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 40 (2): 63–72.

Minimalist shoes are still likely better than traditional heeled running shoes

  • Davis, Irene S., Hannah M. Rice, and Scott C. Wearing. 2017. “Why Forefoot Striking in Minimal Shoes Might Positively Change the Course of Running Injuries.” Journal of Sport and Health Science 6 (2): 154–61.
  • Miller, Elizabeth E., Katherine K. Whitcome, Daniel E. Lieberman, Heather L. Norton, and Rachael E. Dyer. 2014. “The Effect of Minimal Shoes on Arch Structure and Intrinsic Foot Muscle Strength.” Journal of Sport and Health Science 3 (2): 74–85.
  • Perl, Daniel P., Adam I. Daoud, and Daniel E. Lieberman. 2012. “Effects of Footwear and Strike Type on Running Economy:” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 44 (7): 1335–43.
  • Warne, Joe P., and Allison H. Gruber. 2017. “Transitioning to Minimal Footwear: A Systematic Review of Methods and Future Clinical Recommendations.” Sports Medicine - Open 3 (1).

What does the physics of running look like?

  • Lieberman, Daniel E., Madhusudhan Venkadesan, William A. Werbel, Adam I. Daoud, Susan D’Andrea, Irene S. Davis, Robert Ojiambo Mang’Eni, and Yannis Pitsiladis. 2010. “Foot Strike Patterns and Collision Forces in Habitually Barefoot versus Shod Runners.” Nature 463 (7280): 531–35.
  • Divert, C., G. Mornieux, H. Baur, F. Mayer, and A. Belli. 2005. “Mechanical Comparison of Barefoot and Shod Running.” International Journal of Sports Medicine 26 (7): 593–98.
  • Divert, C., G. Mornieux, P. Freychat, L. Baly, F. Mayer, and A. Belli. 2008. “Barefoot-Shod Running Differences: Shoe or Mass Effect?” International Journal of Sports Medicine 29 (6): 512–18.
  • Hamill, Joseph, Elizabeth M. Russell, Allison H. Gruber, and Ross Miller. 2011. “Impact Characteristics in Shod and Barefoot Running.” Footwear Science 3 (1): 33–40.
  • Warne, Joe, Kieran Moran, and Giles Warrington. 2018. “Small Step Frequency Changes Due to Footwear Condition Have No Effect on Running Economy.” Sports Medicine International Open 02 (02): E41–45.
  • Lafortune, Mario A, Ewald M Hennigt, and Mark J Lake. n.d. “Dominant Role Of Interface Over Knee Angle For Cushioning Impact Loading And Regulating Initial Leg Stiffness,” 7.

Possible long-term effects of barefoot/minimalist running

  • Fuller, Joel T., Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D. Tsiros, Nicholas A.T. Brown, and Jonathan D. Buckley. 2017. “Six-Week Transition to Minimalist Shoes Improves Running Economy and Time-Trial Performance.” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 20 (12): 1117–22.
  • Kulmala, Juha-Pekka, Janne Avela, Kati Pasanen, and Jari Parkkari. 2013. “Forefoot Strikers Exhibit Lower Running-Induced Knee Loading than Rearfoot Strikers:” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 45 (12): 2306–13.
  • Soares, Tania Socorro Amorim, Camila Fonseca de Oliveira, Federico Pizzuto, Rui Manuel Garganta, João Paulo Vila-Boas, and Mario Casimiro da Anunciação Paiva. 2018. “Acute Kinematics Changes in Marathon Runners Using Different Footwear.” Journal of Sports Sciences 36 (7): 766–70.
  • Sinclair, Jonathan. 2014. “Effects of Barefoot and Barefoot Inspired Footwear on Knee and Ankle Loading during Running.” Clinical Biomechanics 29 (4): 395–99.

ANY shoes are bad to relearn running form

  • Bonacci, Jason, Philo U Saunders, Amy Hicks, Timo Rantalainen, Bill (Guglielmo) T Vicenzino, and Wayne Spratford. 2013. “Running in a Minimalist and Lightweight Shoe Is Not the Same as Running Barefoot: A Biomechanical Study.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 47 (6): 387–92.
  • Bonacci, Jason, Bill Vicenzino, Wayne Spratford, and Paul Collins. 2014. “Take Your Shoes off to Reduce Patellofemoral Joint Stress during Running.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 48 (6): 425–28.

Inconclusive studies

  • Hollander, Karsten, Christoph Heidt, Babette C. Van Der Zwaard, Klaus-Michael Braumann, and Astrid Zech. 2017. “Long-Term Effects of Habitual Barefoot Running and Walking: A Systematic Review.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 49 (4): 752–62.
  • Nigg, Benno M., Jordyn Vienneau, AiméE C. Smith, Matthieu B. Trudeau, Maurice Mohr, and Sandro R. Nigg. 2017. “The Preferred Movement Path Paradigm: Influence of Running Shoes on Joint Movement.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 49 (8): 1641–48.
  • Lopes, Alexandre Dias, Luiz Carlos Hespanhol Junior, Simon S Yeung, and Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa. 2012. “What Are the Main Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries?” Sports Med, 15.